(Biography) I was born in Calgary, Alberta and received my BA degree from the University of Calgary and obtained law degrees from the Universities of Toronto (LL.B), and London, England (LL.M) and am called to the Alberta Bar. I also attended the École Nationale d?Administration (ENA) in Paris. I joined the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade in 1972 and subsequently served in Canadian Embassies in Washington, Lagos, Paris, as Deputy Head of Mission in the Canadian Mission to the European Union in Brussels and as Ambassador to Hungary and Slovenia. With the Department in Ottawa, I was Director of Legal Operations, Director of International Financial and Investment Affairs, Director for Southern Europe, Director for the European Union, Director General of the Legal Affairs Bureau and Director General of the Europe Bureau. I was also Principal Counsel for the Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, Counsel on the Environmental Side Agreement to NAFTA and Alternate Representative for Canada to the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. I have been involved in Arctic questions throughout my career particularly Canada's Arctic boundaries and archipelagic baselines, cooperation with other Arctic states and ratification of the Law of the Sea Convention I retired after 38 years in the Foreign Service and continue to speak and write on international political and legal issues.